BETX stands for benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylene, a group of compounds that all belong to the broader category of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Benzene and ethylbenzene are known carcinogens, and have also been shown to cause blood disorders, impact the central nervous system and the reproductive system. Additionally, Toluene may affect the reproductive, respiratory and central nervous systems. Xylene may have respiratory and neurological effects as well . BETX components are present in many natural gas streams and are absorbed by the solvent in glycol dehydration and amine sweetening units.
In gas dehydration service, triethylene glycol (TEG) will absorb limited quantities of BETX from the gas. Based on literature data, predicted absorption levels for BETX components vary from 5-10% for benzene to 20-30% for ethylbenzene and xylene . Absorption is favored at lower temperatures, increasing TEG concentration and circulation rate. The bulk of absorbed BETX is separated from the glycol in the regeneration unit and leaves the system in the regenerator overhead stream.
The emission of BETX components from glycol dehydration units is strictly regulated in most countries. In the U.S., benzene emissions are limited to 1 ton/year (900 kg/year). Mitigation of BETX emissions is an important component in the design of a dehydration system. Correctly estimating the quantity of absorbed BETX and understanding the factors that affect absorption levels is critical.
Moshfeghian and Hubbard  simulated a contactor column with two theoretical stages and a natural gas feed containing methane through n-decane (C1 through C10) and BETX compounds. The BETX concentrations in the feed gas were 400, 100, 50, and 50 ppmv for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene; respectively. The concentration of the lean TEG stream was 99.0 weight % TEG, and it was assumed the lean TEG temperature was the same as the feed gas. The feed gas was saturated with water at feed conditions. For each contactor pressure and temperature, the lean TEG circulation ratio was varied. To perform simulation, they used ProMax  with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong  equation of state (SRK EOS). Based on their simulation results, they presented two diagrams for quick estimation of BETX absorption in TEG dehydration process. Figures 1 and 2  present the BETX absorption % (on weight basis) as a function of TEG circulation ratio and temperature for two pressures of 300 and 1000 psia (2069 and 6897 kPa).
This tip demonstrates application of these diagrams for quick estimation of BETX absorption in a case study. Specifically, TEG dehydration of a natural gas stream containing BETX compounds was considered and the estimated annual mass rate of BETX compounds absorbed by TEG solution. The graphical and hand calculation results were compared with the ProMax  simulation results and good agreement was observed.
Finally, an overview of the most commonly used designs for mitigation of BETX emissions will be provided.
Figure 1. Approximate BETX Absorption in TEG vs circulation ratio and contactor temperature at 300 psia (2069 kPa) 
Figure 2. Approximate BETX Absorption in TEG vs circulation ratio and contactor temperature at 1000 psia (6896 kPa) 
100 MMscfd (2.832×106 Sm3/day) of natural gas with a composition shown in Table 1 and saturated with water at feed conditions enters a TEG contactor. The inlet temperature is 110°F (43.3°C) and pressure is 1000 psia (6897 kPa). The outlet water dew point spec is 20°F (-6.7°C). The reboiler is operating at 360°F and there is one theoretical stage of random packing in the stripper.
Determine the quantity of BETX in lbm/year (kg/year) which would be vented to the atmosphere if no remedial actions were taken.
Assumptions: Approach temperature = 18°F (10°C) and lean TEG temperature = feed gas temperature
Based on the procedure outlined in Chapter 17 of Volume 2 of Gas Conditioning and Processing Book , the following parameters were determined:
Using Figure 3 for the lean TEG circulation ratio of 0.17 gpm TEG/MMscfd of gas (1.36 m3/h TEG/106 Sm3/day of gas), BETX absorption weight % for temperatures of 95 and 122°F (35 and 50°C) are presented in Table 2. Note that for 122°F (50°C), the lines were extrapolated by dotted lines for lower flow rates. By linear interpolation, the estimated values of absorption weight % for temperature of 110°F (43.3°C) are presented in the last column of Table 2.
Figure 3. Estimating BETX Absorption (weight %) in TEG for example at psia (6896 kPa) 
For lean TEG concentration of 99.5 weight % and circulation rate of 17 gpm (3.861 m3/hr), the BETX absorption weight % from ProMax simulation results are shown in Table 3. As shown in Tables 2 and 3, there is a good agreement between the estimated BETX absorption weight % from Figure 3 and the ProMax simulation results. The ProMax calculated dry gas water dewpoint was also 20°F (-6.7°C) that matches the specified value.
The annual mass rate of each BETX compound entering the contactor in lbm/yr (kg/yr) can be determined from the following equations.
In the above equations q = 100 MMscfd (2.832×106 Sm3/day), MW (molecular weight) and ppmv (concentration) are given in Table 4. For each BETX compound, the absorbed mass rate of is determined by multiplying mass rate entering the contactor times the corresponding absorption weight % divided by 100. The calculation results are presented in Table 4. The last two columns of Table 4 present the annual mass rate of each component absorbed in the TEG and subsequently regenerated and vented with the water.
The bulk of absorbed BETX will be vented with the water vapor at the top of the regenerator. The most common emission mitigation strategies are to :
1. Condense the regenerator overhead vapor in a partial condenser and combust the remaining vapor. The uncondensed vapors are typically routed to an incinerator or, if a direct-fired reboiler is used, routed to the reboiler fuel gas. The liquid hydrocarbons are collected and disposed of by blending into a crude oil or condensate stream. The condensed water is typically routed to produced water disposal.
2. Route the regenerator overhead vapors to another process stream in the facility. This is typically a low-pressure stream such as flash vapors from the last stage of a crude or condensate stabilization system.
From an operational point of view, minimizing circulation ratio is the most effective way of decreasing the absorption of BETX components. This also minimizes reboiler duty and the size of the regeneration skid. Lower TEG circulation rates require more theoretical stages in the contactor to meet outlet water content specifications, but the additional cost of a taller contactor is often offset by savings in the regeneration package. Care should be taken that the glycol circulation rate is sufficient to ensure adequate liquid distribution over the packing. Packing vendors can provide minimum circulation guidelines.
Figures 1 and 2 present a simple tool for quick estimation of absorption of BETX compounds in TEG dehydration process. For the case study considered in this tip, the estimated absorption weight % for each of BETX compounds matched well with the ProMax simulation results.
To learn more about similar cases and how to minimize operational problems, we suggest attending our G4 (Gas Conditioning and Processing), G5 (Advanced Applications in Gas Processing), and PF49 (Troubleshooting Oil & Gas Processing Facilities) courses.
PetroSkills offers consulting expertise on this subject and many others. For more information about these services, visit our website at http://petroskills.com/consulting, or email us at consulting@PetroSkills.com.